Esperanto at Stanford University

Lesson Zero - Endings

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Lesson Zero - Endings

To make words, Esperanto agglutinates (glues together) parts:

prefixes + roots + postfixes + endings

(Some roots can function directly as words, but the vast majority require some endings.)

All the possible endings in Esperanto:

Action (verb) = root + i    
    or is or as or os    
  or us    
    or u    
Thing (noun) = root + o (+j) (+n)
Description of a thing (adjective) = root + a (+j) (+n)
Description of action or other description word (adverb) = root + e   (+n)

Examples of words built from parts:

am_     a root
amo love o thing (noun)
amoj loves (more than one love) j more than one thing (plural)
ami to love i action (infinitive)
amis loved is past (tense) action
amas loves as present (tense) action
amos will love os future (tense) action
amus would love us conditional (tense) action
amu love! u (imperative) influencing action
ama loving a describes a thing (adjective)
ame lovingly e describes an action (adverb)
amon love (as a thing given) n thing acted upon (direct object)

More complex examples of words built from parts:

bird_   this is a root
birdo a bird noun
birda birdlike adjective
bela beautiful another root + adjective ending
bela birdo beautiful bird adjective + noun
blua birdo blue bird another adjectival root + noun
birdoj birds plural
rapide rapidly another root with an adverb ending
flugi to fly infinitive of another root
flugis flew past tense
flugas flies (is flying, does fly) - all the same presnt tense of an action
flugos will fly future tense
flugus would fly conditional
flugu! fly! command
birdo flugas rapide a bird flies rapidly  
birdo flugis bele a bird flew beautifully  
silenta birdo flugos a silent bird will fly another root
silente birdo flugas silently a bird flies  
birdo flugus a bird would fly  
silentu! silence!  

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